Multiparadigm (or multi-paradigm) languages are combination programming languages, mergers, that support, strongly, two or more programming paradigms, models, forms of program representation, within one language. Examples: procedural+functional or procedural+functional+objects or procedural+functional+logic+objects, etc. Framework languages (or programming language frameworks), a subset of multiparadigm languages, are designed to also be highly extensible and modular, very paradigm agnostic, minimally biased, ideally with no one main paradigm. Lisp was not originally intended as a multiparadigm language, but it has evolved into one supporting procedural + functional + object programming models. Some multiparadigm languages allow creating multidimensional databases, providing high speed searching and sorting of complex data. They are growing more popular. Some experts say that these are the new wave in languages. They are often faster and easier to build and maintain due to their flexibility, and are well suited to Rapid Application Development: RAD. On this page, languages are arranged in three groups and levels: 1) Top group: issues spanning multiple unrelated languages. 2) Middle group: types or classes of languages. 3) Bottom group: specific languages, with their own directory category.
  • An Object Model for Multiparadigm Programming Presented at OOPSLA 1994.
  • Concepts and Architecture of Vista: A Multiparadigm Programming Environment Visual multiparadigm programming: visual + object-oriented (signal flow + data flow); from Proceedings of 10th IEEE/CS Symposium on Visual Languages, St. Louis, USA, 4-7 October 1994. Downloads: HTML, PS.
  • ELAN Created 1974 by Technical University of Berlin group, as alternative to BASIC in teaching, for systematic programming, and related styles: top-down, bottom-up, recursive, modular, syntax-directed. Descriptions, brief resource list, documents. English, Deutsch.
  • Heron Home site. Has brief description, specification, tutorial, related articles, download.
  • Heron-Centric: Ruminations of a Language Designer Weblog on language design issues, software development techniques, news, on Heron language, and similar languages like Java, C++.
  • Kx Systems, Inc. Makes K, advanced vector oriented, functional language, one of the fastest application development environments (according to Bell Laboratories Benchmarking), and allows very fast processing of large datasets.
  • Lfyre General purpose, compiled; high performance, expressiveness, flexibility. Many features found in other languages, and extra features: creating new operators, keywords, programming paradigms. News, download. [SourceForge]
  • Lightweight Languages as Software Engineering Tools Usenix Paper discussing multiparadigm programming as part of a larger topic.
  • Multiparadigm Programming Group At Leibniz Laboratory, Grenoble, France; research topics, news, publications, members. [English and French]
  • Multiparadigm Programming Language Brief description, language list sorted by count and supported paradigms. [Wikipedia]
  • Needle Pure object-oriented, functional language, statically typed, garbage collected; mixes ideas from Dylan, Lisp, Scheme; ML; Cecil, Smalltalk; description, slide show, downloads, links. [Open Source, MIT]
  • Nial Systems Ltd. NIAL, Nested Interactive Array Language, mixes aspects of functional array and procedural languages. Rich primitives set makes it easy, fast to code loop-free data-driven algorithms. Also Q'Nial IDE, and Nial Data Engine embeddable interpreter. [Open Source, Artistic Licence]
  • Piccola: A Small Composition Language PI based COmposition LAnguage: research language to explore the paradigm: Application = Components + Scripts. From the University of Berne.
  • ResearchIndex: From Competition to Amalgamation of Different Programming Paradigms Describes basic elements (data, actions, tunings, voids, mixtures, ...) and principles of programming (stratification, implicit knowledge, limited freedom, ...), directed to amalgamating different programming paradigms (imperative, object-oriented, functional, constraint, ...) in a unified process of generating computer system models.
  • Scala General purpose language; multiparadigm (object-oriented, functional, concurrent elements); statically typed, type-safe; focus: Web services. Successor of Funnel. Interoperates with Java VM or .NET, XML aware. [Open source, BSD-like license]
  • X Language: xlang The eXtensible Language: easy to use, multi-syntax, portable set of APIs to create CLI and GUI applications for Unix/X11 and Win32; will ease making big applications, has interpreter/compiler/debugger. [Open Source, GPL]
  • XLR: Extensible Language and Runtime XL is designed to implement the ideas of Concept Programming. It can apply to many domains and problem spaces, not only a small subset of the problems users must solve.

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