Functional programming is a style of programming emphasizing evaluating expressions, rather than executing commands. Functional languages are those supporting and encouraging programming in a functional style, where expressions are formed by using functions to combine basic values. On this page, languages are arranged in three groups and levels: 1) Top group: issues spanning multiple unrelated languages. 2) Middle group: types or classes of languages. 3) Bottom group: specific languages, with their own directory category.
  • Afnix Programming Language A multi-threaded functional programming language with dynamic symbol bindings which provides a state of art runtime engine for 32- and 64-bit platform and a rich set of platform independent libraries, compatible with C++ runtime operations, automatic protection engine for shared objects. Successor of Aleph.
  • Aldor Functional language in which types are first class values. Normal functions returning types reproduce the features of template classes of other languages. Links to many projects around the world based on Aldor.
  • BitC Language Specification BitC is a systems programming language that combines the low level nature of C with the semantic rigor of Scheme or ML.
  • Cat Functional stack-based language inspired by Joy; main differences: Cat has static typing with type inferencing (like ML, Haskell), and term rewriting macro language extension language, MetaCat. Open-source, public domain.
  • CDuce An XML centric programming language with higher order, semantic subtyping, pattern matching and overloading, and open source implementation.
  • Charity Functional, categorical language, by University of Calgary, Canada. Innovative organization: based on theory of strong categorical datatypes divided into 2 subclasses: inductive (built up by constructors in the familiar way), and coinductive (broken down by destructors).
  • Disclojure Daily news about the Clojure programming languange.
  • Eden Parallel functional language to program reactive systems and parallel algorithms using distributed memory. Extends Haskell, but overrules lazy evaluation whenever needed to support parallelism.
  • FAQ for comp.lang.functional Offers documentation as a frequently asked questions list. Also provides links to general topic, technical and other resources.
  • Functional Programming Claus Reinke's , well organized bookmarks on FP.
  • Functional programming for the JVM A framework integrating major concepts from functional programming into the Java Platform.
  • Functional Programming in the Real World Lists functional programs written primarily to perform to real-world tasks. Has pure programs (no side effects) and impure (some use of side effects). Languages: Caml, Clean, Erlang, Haskell, Miranda, Scheme, Standard ML.
  • Hope A small functional programming language, with polymorphic typing, algebraic types, pattern matching and higher-order functions.
  • Joy Pure functional language based on function composition rather than application; concatenative language, very like Forth, inputs and outputs stacks, but with higher-level data types and sound mathematical foundation. [Open Source, BSD]
  • Lemon Functional language with inductive and coinductive types. Based on simply-typed lambda calculus augmented with sums, products, and mu and nu constructors for least (inductive) and greatest (coinductive) solutions to recursive type equations.
  • Links: Linking Theory to Practice for the Web Functional language to solve impedance mismatch problem by using one language for all 3 tiers of web programming: front-end browser, middle-tier server, back-end database; people, mail lists, papers, talks, wiki, downloads.
  • Mondrian A simple functional scripting language for Internet applications.
  • NESL: A Parallel Programming Language Parallel functional language developed at Carnegie Mellon, SCandAL project. Most important new ideas: nested data parallelism, language based performance model.
  • PLAN: A Packet Language for Active Networks Resource-bounded functional language that uses a form of remote procedure call to realize active networking. Part of the SwitchWare Project. Descriptions, documents, downloads, contacts, links.
  • Q Equational Programming Language An extensible functional programming language based on the term rewriting calculus.
  • - Resources for Functional Programming A variety of research resources on functional programming languages, implementation, and applications of functional programming languages.
  • Rita Loogen Member of Eden team. Articles.
  • Scala Programming Language General purpose programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way.
  • The Agda Wiki Home page for the Agda 2, a dependently typed functional programming language.
  • The Pizza Compiler Java extension with functional features: generics (parametric polymorphism), function pointers (first-class (higher-order) functions), class cases and pattern matching (algebraic (data)types).
  • The Unlambda Programming Language A functional language designed for obscurity
  • Tutorial Papers in Functional Programming John Hughes' list of FP-related tutorials and courses.
  • Wadler: Monads Information on monads and functional programming
  • What the Hell are Monads? Basic introduction to monads, monadic programming, and I/O.
  • Whiley A hybrid object-oriented and functional programming language which compiles to the JVM.
  • Why Functional Programming Matters A paper by John Hughes from 1984 along with some translations distributed on the author web site.
  • Wikipedia: Functional Programming Encyclopdia article including a definition, comparison, history, and examples.

Media publications

  • ICFP 2002 The 2002 International Conference on Functional Programming covers the entire spectrum of functional programming, from practice to theory, and from established functional programming languages (Scheme, ML, Haskell) to novel language designs and to the functional aspects of object-oriented or concurrent languages. October 4-6, 2002 Pittsburgh, PA, USA. (Published 2002-10-04 00:00:00)
  • The Rise of Functional Languages Brief article, explains what they are, and how and why their popularity is growing; with links and reader comments. Linux Journal. (Published 2007-04-30 00:00:00)


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