Consciously non-conformist writing that embraced bohemian lifestyles, rejected so-called "bourgeois middle-class standards" and often celebrated alcoholism and recreational drug use. Began in late 1940s with group of New York writers centered around Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs, and William Corso. Cross-fertilized by writers of the San Francisco Renaissance such as Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Kenneth Rexroth and Bob Kaufman. Associated with non-conformist music and visual arts, from folk music revivalists to more radical expermentation. Gradually supplanted by the hippie counter-culture of the 1960s.
  • The Beat Generation and the Sixties A guide to web resources, combining Beats and leading into the Hippies and 1960s. Created and maintained by Alan Keig, University of Adelaide Library, Australia. Adds a non-USA view of the Beats.
  • Literary Kicks A free-form study of Beat Literature, literary community and underground culture.
  • A Blackout Tavern Study in 1960s Folklore, by Pat O'Connor. The 1960s hippie scene in Wichita, KS. Includes photographs, and covers the first large LSD bust in Kansas.
  • A brief introduction to the beat (in) film An Analysis of Beat Cinema
  • A. D. Winans Looks Back at the Beat Generation San Francisco poet Winans discusses the roots of the Beat Generation poets and writers, and their legacy.
  • Ah Puch Is Here Malcolm McNeill and William Burroughs - art work for unpublished image novel (aka, Ah Pook Is Here) created in early 1970s in London.
  • Alan Russo, The Locked Man poems 1960; Wichita, KS, poet Charles Plymell, printer. Very little poetry is available by Russo, considered one of the best by his beat peers.
  • Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl”: Fifty years later and in its own time By Andras Gyorgy; World Socialist take on the conditions that the Beats wrote in versus current realites.
  • Allen Ginsberg and his world: photos by Gordon Ball Ball edited three books with poet Allen Ginsberg, including Pulitzer Prize nominee "Allen Verbatim."
  • American Museum of Beat Art Museum located in Pasadena, California. Featuring writers, poets, film, artists, photographs, manifestos, and critical writing.
  • Amram, David. "A vanishing America?: Kerouac memories, a Guthrie symphony and a trip to Nathan’s Coney Island hot dog emporium
  • And the Beat Goes On about City Lights bookstore and the counterculture: 1961 - 1974, on its 50th anniversary, from S.F. Gate, 2003
  • Ann Charters Interview 1992 audio interview by Don Swaim with author of Beat Down to Your Soul: What Was the Beat Generation, and The Portable Beat Reader.
  • Aram Saroyan Writer, poet, playwright, with ties to the Beats; author of "The Saga of Lew Welch and the Beat Generation"
  • Ashcan Rantings and Kind King Light of Mind Why the Beats Still Matter by actor J.C. Shakespeare
  • Ashleigh Brilliant artist and writer, creator of pot-shots cartoons, famous for their 17-word limit.
  • Back Beat Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs's co-authored noir novel, "And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks" resurfaces. How the post-Beats make money, by infamous boxing sports writer, Beat George Kimball.
  • Beat Generation and Bohemian Culture: Subcultural stories and resources with book reviews, recommended links, original articles and event listings. Featuring Jack Kerouac and influential beat characters.
  • Beat Generation at the Gay, Lesbian, B, T, Queer Encyclopedia The writers of the Beat Generation, many of whom were gay or bisexual, endorsed gay rights as a part of their rebellion against inhibition and self-censorship.
  • Beat Generation in Tangiers Author Chuck Woww visits Tangiers and writes to Beat William Burroughs about it, with photographs of Cafe Centrale and the Tangier beach, 2008.
  • Beat Generation Trading Cards Unique renderings of Beats by Jesse Crumb (son of R. Crumb) on promotional cards. Includes Lenny Bruce, William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and Thelonious Monk.
  • Beat Movement An overview of Beat poetry, literature, history, and film.
  • Beat Papers of Al Aronowitz A collection of interviews, memories and articles by the late Aronowitz, the infamous Black Listed Journalist, who was actually there; close friend of Ginsberg and introduced Bob Dylan to the Beatles.
  • Beat Quotes Quotes by or pertaining to a beat author.
  • Beat SuperNova A large list of beats and people related to the beat movement.
  • Beat-L An online discussion forum devoted to the study of the lives and works of the writers of the Beat Generation, especially Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs.
  • A photographic essay of Beat Generation landmarks in New York City.
  • Beatnik! from Beat Scene Magazine, by Bill Whipp; on murder, death and violence in North Beach, 1950s
  • Beats In Kansas: the Beat Generation in the Heartland Collection of links and original articles. Many Beats were from Kansas. Original photos of William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Michael McClure, Charles Plymell.
  • Beatscene Magazine which documents and highlights the writers, poets, musicians and artists of America's Beat Generation.
  • Birth of The Beats is Born, 64 years later James Grauerholz on William Burroughs and Jack Kerouac 1946 book, "And the Hippos Were Boiled in their Tanks," the first writing by later Beat literature giants, finally published in 2008.
  • Books by the Beat Generation Nice review of major books (collectables) by the Beats, by Dr. Donald W. Miller, Jr.
  • Brautigan, Richard (1935-1984) Bibliography and information about the writer told in text, images, and other resources. Maintained by John F. Barber.
  • Catfish McDaris Interviews Charles Plymell Beat poets McDaris and Plymell on the 1960s San Francisco scene.
  • Celestial Homework Reading list with links for "Literary History of the Beat Generation," a course taught by Allen Ginsberg at Naropa Institute in 1977
  • Characters In Beat and Bohemian Literature Listing by person's last name to their fictional character name(s) in Beat literature. From Worchel Institute for the Study of Beat and Bohemian Literature.
  • Charles Plymell, from The Last of the Moccasins On the Wichita Vortex, from outlaw poet and early beat generation author Plymell, friend of Allen Ginsberg and Neal Cassady.
  • Charles Plymell : The Benzedrine Highway Interview by Paul Hawkins, Reality Studio, photographs; Early beat writer & poet Plymell became well known after the 1971 publication of his novel, Last of The Moccasins. Included are comments from Roxie Powell, Hammond Guthrie, Laki Vazakas, Ginger Killian Eades, and Mike Watt.
  • Charles Plymell, from Kansa, Land of the Wind People biographical writing from Plymell, early beat generation poet, author.
  • Cold War Correspondents: Ginsberg, Kerouac, Cassady, and the Political Economy of Beat Letters, by Dr. Oliver Harris, Dept. of American Studies, Keele University, England, leading Burroughs scholar.
  • Corban LePell letter on art Beat artist LePell writes on art in a letter to student Sylvia Smith Kleindinst, 1955
  • Corso - The Last Beat Documentary film following Beat co-founder Gregory Corso, "on the road" in Europe retracing the early days of "The Beats".
  • Cultural Chronology of Early Beat Generation Literature Annotated list of beat publication dates and events, by Larry Smith (Firelands College of BGSU)
  • Daniel Abdal-Hayy Moore Poetry A selection from the lifework in poetry, theater and art of Moore, whose first book of poems, Dawn Visions, was published by City Lights Books in 1964, and the second, Burnt Heart /An Ode to the War Dead in 1972.
  • Death Of The Beat Generation Gay Today magazine article by Jesse Monteagudo, written following the deaths of gay Beat writers William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Herbert Huncke, on their impact on modern culture.
  • Denton Welsh biography Author, painter. 1915-1948. Major literary influence on William Burroughs.
  • Dharma Beat Links A directory on writer Jack Kerouac, and his friends, including Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, and Neal Cassady.
  • Ferus Gallery (1957-66) A gallery of West Coast artist's of the 1950's, establishing many of them into various degrees of fame. Includes Robert (Bob) Alexander, John Reed, Wallace Berman, and Walter Hopps.
  • George Tsongas North Beach poet.
  • George Tsongas: San Francisco Poet 81 year old Tsongas (1929-2010) was of the Beats but not part of any movement.
  • Goodie Magazine Lost Beat poets
  • Gordon Ball's Beat Generation Ball teaches at the Virginia Military Institute -- a photo of Allen Ginsberg teaching Ball's class is now a classic.
  • Haight Ashbury Song Book by Ashleigh Brilliant, 1967, San Francisco's "Songs of love and haight." Beat Generation to hippie transition.
  • Harold Norse, Poet Norse (1916- ) was among the American expatriates in Europe during the 1950's and early 1960's. He was an occupant of the Beat Hotel, Paris, where he first caught up with the Beat generation writers in 1960. Poet William Carlos Williams was his mentor.
  • Henry Miller and William Burroughs: An Overview Reality Studio's: the influence of Henry Miller on Burroughs at Harvard in September 1935, his senior year, when the Harvard Advocate printed Miller, his first publication in America.
  • Herbert Huncke Interviewed Exclusive interview of Beat Generation icon by author Johnny Strike
  • Hibblen Radio - Beat Generation A portfolio website for CBS News Radio reporter Michael Hibblen featuring sound clips of the Beat Generation
  • How Beat Happened by Steve Silberman. Article from SF Weekly. On Kenneth Rexroth, Robert Duncan, Philip Whalen, and Allen Ginsberg -- from the 1930s to the 1950s.
  • Huncke Times Herbert Huncke, the original Beat; major influence on William Burroughs.
  • James Mechem, Beat Writer and Publisher, New York Caprice magazine and Bowery Poetry Club founder; interviewed on his 80th birthday in 2003 by poet Denise Low, original photographs.
  • John Long & Philomene Long Ghosts of Venice Beach; late poets and leaders of Los Angeles beat literature
  • Kulchur No. 1 Magazine Spring 1960 edition, edited by Charles Olson and Le Roi Jones [Amiri Baraka] ; includes William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Diane Di Prima, Paul Bowles and Donald Phelps.
  • Larry Keenan - Beat Generation & Counter-Culture Photography Galleries Featuring Keenan's famed fine art photographs of the Beat Generation and Hippies and counterculture, from 1964 to now. Includes a biography and exhibitions, publications. No photographer was closer to the Beats.
  • Malcolm McNeill Interview on William Burroughs, Ah Puch Is Here Emmy award winning artist McNeill worked with Burroughs in London during early 1970s, on comic series, The Unspeakable Mr. Hart, and graphic novel, Ah Puch Is Here (aka, Ah Pook is Here), from Beats In Kansas, 2007
  • Michael McClure & Ray Manzarek Official Website Beat poet McClure and former Door's band member Manzarek's website focuses on their collaboration of music and poetry projects and publications, performances, books, CDs, and videos.
  • Michael McClure: An Anthology of Poems Selected by the author for the "Margins" symposium series in 1975. McClure is one of the five poets (including Allen Ginsberg) who read at the famous San Francisco Six Gallery reading in 1955.
  • Moody's Skidrow Beanery In Wichita, Kansas, Moody Connell believed in a mix of hoboes and Beats and served them simple fare in a place to congregate, by Pat O'Connor.
  • Naropa University - Audio Archive Project Massive oral collection from Buddhist university; includes Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, William S. Burroughs, Philip Whalen, Michael McClure, Gary Snyder, Diane DiPrima, Lawrence Ferlinghetti.
  • Oliver Harris on Burroughs Dr. Harris, a leading Beat scholar on "William Burroughs and the Composite Text," presented at the 4th Annual Symposium on Textual Studies, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK; 25 May 2007.
  • On R. Crumb and Zap Comix: Curled in Character by Charley Plymell, Zap's first printer
  • On Ray Bremser by poet Charles Plymell; Bremser one of the original, and most authentic Beats, a hipster from the same vein as Herbert Huncke
  • Paul Bowles Photographs Literary friends of writer Bowles, visiting him in Tangier in 1950s and 1960s. Includes Ginsberg, Burroughs, Corso.
  • Philomene Long -- Interview for Ruta 66 By Jordi Pujol Nadal. Greenwich Village native and the Beat Queen of Venice, CA, poet Long and her late husband, poet John Thomas, helped create the Los Angeles poetry scene.
  • Poets Charles Plymell, Roxie Powell Photograph of Beat writers and poets Plymell and Powell, Cherry Valley, NY, 2009; photograph by videographer Laki Vazakas.
  • PoLarity eMagazine New American Bohemian Literature, George Wallace, editor. Fiction, photographs, Beat events
  • Remembering William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg Personal observations by poet Jim McCrary, a longtime friend of Burroughs, and his office manager for ten years.
  • Robert Cass, New Orleans Beat Legend Dennis Formento interviews Robert Cass, New Orleans' oldest living beatnik, 1999. Cass published "Climax: A Creative Review in the Jazz Spirit" in 1955 and 1956 from the bar, A Quarterite Place, 733 Bourbon St. It was among the earliest of the Beat literature.
  • Roxie Powell — Wild Whispers Robert Peters said of Powell’s first chapbook, "anyone anxious for an original experience in poetry will love Dreams of Straw." Allen Ginsberg paid for a second printing of the book. From Kansas, friend of Charley Plymell and Dave Haselwood.
  • Ruined Time: The 1950s and the Beat Memoir of the Great Depression, World War II, and the 1950s with an uniquely Beat outlook.
  • Salon Books | Breaking up with the Beats Kerouac and company were David Gates' first literary loves -- but he had to get off their road.
  • San Francisco Renaissance 6 Poets at 6 Gallery by Al Aronowitz., the late godfather of rock journalism
  • Semiology: Beats Vs. Beatniks In 1950s American Culture by Grant L. Allen. Transition from beat idea to beatnik myth distorted the original almost beyond recognition.
  • Shapes of Time: The Beats by Marshall Mateer, Belfast; memories of buying Seymour Krim's "The Beats" in Northern Ireland in 1962, by the then 17-year old Mateer.
  • Six Poets at Six Gallery October 7, 1955 reading with Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Phil Whalen, Kenneth Rexroth, San Francisco. First reading of "Howl" by Ginsberg. Start of modern oral poetry tradition.
  • Some Notes on Cyberliths by Bruce Harris; on Beat artist Robert LaVigne's Cyberliths, drawings inspired by the Rosette Stone. LaVigne introduced Allen Ginsberg to Peter Orlovsky.
  • Stuart Perkoff / Philomene Long - Death Bed Conversation A central figure in the Venice Beat scene, poet Perkoff died at age 44 on June 24, 1974. Beat Poet Long was his lover.
  • Taylor Mead - The Bowery Poetry Club - Part I YouTube - Filmed December 22, 2006, at the Bowery Poetry Club, NYC, where Beat poet Mead still performs.
  • The 3rd Page Journal of Ongrowing Natures, edited by Hammond Guthrie, author of AsEverWas: Memoirs of a Beat Survivor.
  • The Beat Page Biographies, photos and included works of Beat Generation writers.
  • the beats: new york University of Virginia. Sharp cover images of first-edition books by William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and Neal Cassady.
  • The Poetry Center and American Poetry Archives San Francsico State University; artist biographies and MP3 audio files; founded in 1954 on the basis of a gift by W.H. Auden.
  • The Wichita Group by James Johnson; on the Wichita Vortex, including Michael McClure, Bruce Conner, and David Haselwood
  • The Wild Bohemian Home Page Colin Pringle's articles and directory on wild cats and chicks, Hippies, the Beat Generation, Bohemian bands, outlaw bikers.
  • This is the Beat Generation by John Clellon Holmes, A 26-year-old defines his times, New York Times Magazine, Nov. 16, 1952. Very early essay on Beats; Holmes also wrote novel "Go" in 1952, the first book to cover Kerouac, Ginsberg, et al.
  • Timothy Leary on William Burroughs, Brion Gysin, and Bou Saada interview, Pataphysics, October 17, 1989. On beats in Algiers, Tangiers, cut-ups, and the "Dream Machine." From INTO-GAL, 2006
  • Unspeakable Visions: The Beat Generation and The Bohemian Dialectic. by Michael Haywood. 1991 paper on the history of the Beat writers in print, from their early stirrings in the underground press, through to their publication by mainstream publishers.
  • Wes Race - Cryptic Whalin by Paul Hawkins; Poet and self confessed "Blues Spectatin` Fool", Race came out of the Wichita Vortex in the 1950`s. Introduction by Charley Plymell.
  • Wikipedia: Beat Generation Detailed article lists principal writers in New York, San Francisco and elsewhere, and explains links to music, visual arts, and drug and alcohol use. With section on anti-Beats such as Norman Podhoretz.
  • William Burroughs & Allen Ginsberg: PJs photograph Morning in Burroughs' house, with Beat founders in old fashion cotton pajamas. 1984, by Pat Elliott, Lawrence, KS
  • William Burroughs interviewed by Allen Ginsberg and Gregory Corso 1961 free-form discussion by three of the Beat Generation literary leaders.


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